In this study, the effects of realistic seasonal temperatures on the nitrogen removal performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and the properties of the anammox granules were comparatively investigated for 330 days. The results demonstrated that the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE), nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and nitrogen removal rate (NRR) were decreased dramatically, as the temperature decreased from 31.2 to 2.5 C. However, the nitrogen removal performance recovered andante as the temperature increased gradually. After low temperature exposure, the settleability tended to worsen, and granules appeared to be more irregular with a smaller average granule diameter, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content increased slightly, while the specific anammox activity (SAA) decreased obviously. This realistic seasonal temperatures based research was an illation of the actual operation, and could be potentially implemented to maintain stability for the application of anammox technology.
Modern technology has become a very researched area in PR. Nevertheless, the literature examining online PR still in its early levels. Internet has become essential and has initiate to revolutionize the PR industry. Despite the study of technology and its effect on PR, online PR remains a non-standardized concept used as the varied studies often rely on the specific conceptualization of the practitioners and his experience in this field. This paper intends to show the conceptualization of online public relations among public relation practitioners and illation the factors that led to the understanding or lack of understanding among the practitioners. The paper follows conventional structure to elaborate on the topic for future scholars through proving a critical insight. The paper offers insight o the management of online public relations among the public practitioners with a detailed review of prominent literature to encourage future scholars for empirical attention. 041b061a72